由于新工作中要使用grpc框架,之前也接触过一些,但是没有静下心来学它,加之网上对于这个方面的资料确实比较少,而且没有书,所以记录下来加深一下印象。

我主要参考的资料如下,当然也可以参考中文版的,但是感觉英文的还是更原汁原味吧。

grpc的官网

gRPC 基础: Java

至于什么是grpc?它有什么特点之类的问题就不介绍了,官网及csdn的博客里有很多赘述。这里只记录一下如何上手做的一个简单的grpc服务实例,因为我发现官网的描述并不太直观,尤其是生成服务端很客户端代码部分有一些模糊。

准备工作

准备好一个.proto的文件,这是定义rpc服务的关键文件,就以官网例子中的helloworld.proto为例。

syntax = "proto3";

option java_multiple_files = true;
option java_package = "io.grpc.examples.helloworld";
option java_outer_classname = "HelloWorldProto";
option objc_class_prefix = "HLW";

package helloworld;

// The greeting service definition.
service Greeter {
  // Sends a greeting
  rpc SayHello (HelloRequest) returns (HelloReply) {}
}

// The request message containing the user's name.
message HelloRequest {
  string name = 1;
}

// The response message containing the greetings
message HelloReply {
  string message = 1;
}

生成代码

有了.proto文件,有多种方式可以生成服务端和客户端的代码,这里采用protoc在maven中的插件生成的,pom.xml配置如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>grpc-generate-test</groupId>
    <artifactId>grpc-generate-test</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <grpc.version>1.11.0</grpc.version><!-- CURRENT_GRPC_VERSION -->
        <netty.tcnative.version>2.0.7.Final</netty.tcnative.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
            <artifactId>grpc-netty</artifactId>
            <version>${grpc.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
            <artifactId>grpc-protobuf</artifactId>
            <version>${grpc.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
            <artifactId>grpc-stub</artifactId>
            <version>${grpc.version}</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <extensions>
            <extension>
                <groupId>kr.motd.maven</groupId>
                <artifactId>os-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>1.5.0.Final</version>
            </extension>
        </extensions>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.xolstice.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>protobuf-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>0.5.0</version>
                <configuration>
                    <protocArtifact>com.google.protobuf:protoc:3.5.1-1:exe:${os.detected.classifier}</protocArtifact>
                    <pluginId>grpc-java</pluginId>
                    <pluginArtifact>io.grpc:protoc-gen-grpc-java:${grpc.version}:exe:${os.detected.classifier}</pluginArtifact>
                </configuration>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <goals>
                            <goal>compile</goal>
                            <goal>compile-custom</goal>
                        </goals>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-enforcer-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>1.4.1</version>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <id>enforce</id>
                        <goals>
                            <goal>enforce</goal>
                        </goals>
                        <configuration>
                            <rules>
                                <requireUpperBoundDeps/>
                            </rules>
                        </configuration>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

之后在命令行中输入命令:

mvn compile

如果成功则能在target目录找到对应生成好的代码文件:

实现服务端和客户端代码

新建一个maven工程,将上面生成好的代码文件拷贝进去,新建一个GreeterService.java实现服务端的逻辑:

public class GreeterService extends GreeterGrpc.GreeterImplBase {
    @Override
    public void sayHello(HelloRequest req, StreamObserver<HelloReply> responseObserver) {
        HelloReply reply = HelloReply.newBuilder().setMessage("Hello2 " + req.getName()).build();
        responseObserver.onNext(reply);
        responseObserver.onCompleted();
    }
}

新建一个HelloWorldServer.java实现绑定端口号,注册服务的实现类等工作:

public class HelloWorldServer {
  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(HelloWorldServer.class.getName());

  private Server server;

  private void start() throws IOException {
    /* The port on which the server should run */
    int port = 50051;
    server = ServerBuilder.forPort(port)
        .addService(new GreeterService())
        .build()
        .start();
    logger.info("Server started, listening on " + port);
    Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(new Thread() {
      @Override
      public void run() {
        // Use stderr here since the logger may have been reset by its JVM shutdown hook.
        System.err.println("*** shutting down gRPC server since JVM is shutting down");
        HelloWorldServer.this.stop();
        System.err.println("*** server shut down");
      }
    });
  }

  private void stop() {
    if (server != null) {
      server.shutdown();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Await termination on the main thread since the grpc library uses daemon threads.
   */
  private void blockUntilShutdown() throws InterruptedException {
    if (server != null) {
      server.awaitTermination();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Main launches the server from the command line.
   */
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    final HelloWorldServer server = new HelloWorldServer();
    server.start();
    server.blockUntilShutdown();
  }
}

新建一个HelloWorldClient.java调用服务端的服务获得结果:

public class HelloWorldClient {
  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(HelloWorldClient.class.getName());

  private final ManagedChannel channel;
  private final GreeterGrpc.GreeterBlockingStub blockingStub;

  /** Construct client connecting to HelloWorld server at {@code host:port}. */
  public HelloWorldClient(String host, int port) {
    this(ManagedChannelBuilder.forAddress(host, port)
        // Channels are secure by default (via SSL/TLS). For the example we disable TLS to avoid
        // needing certificates.
        .usePlaintext(true)
        .build());
  }

  /** Construct client for accessing RouteGuide server using the existing channel. */
  HelloWorldClient(ManagedChannel channel) {
    this.channel = channel;
    blockingStub = GreeterGrpc.newBlockingStub(channel);
  }

  public void shutdown() throws InterruptedException {
    channel.shutdown().awaitTermination(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
  }

  /** Say hello to server. */
  public void greet(String name) {
    logger.info("Will try to greet " + name + " ...");
    HelloRequest request = HelloRequest.newBuilder().setName(name).build();
    HelloReply response;
    try {
      response = blockingStub.sayHello(request);
    } catch (StatusRuntimeException e) {
      logger.log(Level.WARNING, "RPC failed: {0}", e.getStatus());
      return;
    }
    logger.info("Greeting: " + response.getMessage());
  }

  /**
   * Greet server. If provided, the first element of {@code args} is the name to use in the
   * greeting.
   */
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    HelloWorldClient client = new HelloWorldClient("localhost", 50051);
    try {
      /* Access a service running on the local machine on port 50051 */
      String user = "world";
      if (args.length > 0) {
        user = args[0]; /* Use the arg as the name to greet if provided */
      }
      client.greet(user);
    } finally {
      client.shutdown();
    }
  }
}

先运行服务端的代码,再执行客户端的代码,得到结果如下:

五月 06, 2018 5:10:49 下午 HelloWorldClient greet
信息: Will try to greet world …
五月 06, 2018 5:10:50 下午 HelloWorldClient greet
信息: Greeting: Hello2 world

至此完成了简单的从生成代码到实现具体服务功能的过程,之后如果有新的学习内容再继续总结。以下是博客里提到的工程文件,仅供参考

grpcgeneratetest

RouteGuideServer

 

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